Scanlation (also scanslation) is the unauthorized scanning, translation, editing and distribution of comics from a foreign language into the language of the distributors. The term is most often used for Japanese (manga), Korean (manhwa), and Chinese (manhua) comics. Scanlations are generally distributed for free via the Internet, either by direct download, BitTorrent or IRC. Scanlation is primarily a hobby which began as small individual efforts by manga fans and developed into a community-oriented practice.
Scanlation emerged in response to the unavailability of popular manga in many languages, and to the discrepancies between manga books published in Japan and books published in other countries. Often there is a long delay before new episodes are commercially published in other languages, and only a fraction of the episodes are made available. Some scanlations are produced because fans believe the original appeal of a manga has been compromised by commercial translators, who sometimes tone down the language, re-write jokes or make cultural changes. Scanlations are often viewed by fans as the only way to read comics that have not been licensed for release in their area. Historically, copyright holders have not requested scanlators to stop distribution before a work is licensed in the translated language, though it is technically illegal according to international copyright law. Some Japanese publishers have threatened scanlation groups with legal action. Licensing companies, such as Del Rey Manga, TOKYOPOP, and VIZ Media, have used the response to various scanlations as a factor in deciding which manga to license for translation and commercial release70
Manga enthusiasts continue to discuss whether the term “manga” can be legitimately applied to manga-style works created by non-Japanese artists. In the U.S., manga-like comics are called "Amerimanga," "world manga," or "original English-language manga" (OEL manga).71
A number of U.S. artists have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. An early example was Vernon Grant, who drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s-early 1970s.72 Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin,73 Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair, Ben Dunn's 1993 Ninja High School, Stan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo, and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).
In the early 2000s, several U.S. manga publishers began to market work by U.S. artists under the broad label of manga.74 In 2002, I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.75 Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.76 TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.77 TokyoPop is currently the largest U.S. publisher of original English language manga.787980
France has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning. Francophone artists have developed their own versions of manga, such as Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga. Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.81 82
The Japanese manga industry has a large number of awards, most sponsored by publishers who include publication in one of their magazines as part of the prize. These awards include the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga, the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga, the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards), the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year, the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres), the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga, and the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres). In May 2007, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs began awarding an annual International Manga Award. 83
See alsoWikimedia Commons has media related to:Manga
- ↑ Jocelyn Bouquillard and Christophe Marquet. Hokusai: First Manga Master. (New York: Abrams, 2007. ISBN 0810993414)
- ↑ Isao Shimizu. 日本漫画の事典 : 全国のマンガファンに贈る (Nihon Manga no Jiten) (Sun lexica, 1985), 53-54, 102-103 (Japanese) ISBN 4385155860
- ↑ Sharon Kinsella. 2000. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824823184).
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Frederik L. Schodt. 1986. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. (Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0870117527).
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Frederik L. Schodt. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235).
- ↑ Kinko Ito, 2004. "Growing up Japanese reading manga." International Journal of Comic Art 6:392-401.
- ↑ Adam Kern. 2006. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyōshi of Edo Japan. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674022661_.
- ↑ Adam Kern, 2007. "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook?" International Journal of Comic Art 9:1-486.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Matt Thorn, Shôjo Manga-Something for the Girls The Japan Quarterly (July-September 2001) 48 (3). Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ This section draws primarily on the work of Frederik Schodt (1986, 1996, 2007) and of Paul Gravett (2004). Time-lines for manga history are available in Mechademia, Gravett, and in articles by Go Tchiei 1998.
- ↑ The Japanese constitution is in the Kodansha encyclopedia Japan: Profile of a Nation, Revised Ed. (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1999), 692-715. Article 9: page 695; article 21: page 697. ISBN 4770023847.
- ↑ Frederik L. Schodt. The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution. (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1933330549
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Paul Gravett. 2004. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. (NY: Harper Design. ISBN 1856693910), 8.
- ↑ William Lee, (2000). "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan." In: Timothy J. Craig, (ed.) Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0765605610).
- ↑ Masami Toku, Shojo Manga: Girl Power! (Chico, CA: Flume Press/California State University Press, 2005, ISBN 1886226105) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Gravett, 2004, 78-80.
- ↑ Lent, 2001, 9-10.
- ↑ Fusami Ōgi, 2004. "Female subjectivity and shōjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shōjo in "Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics." Journal of Popular Culture 36(4):780-803.
- ↑ Patrick Drazen, 2003. Anime Explosion!: the What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge.)
- ↑ Anne Allison 2000. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls." In: Timothy J. Craig, (ed.) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe), 259-278. ISBN 978-0765605610.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 92.
- ↑ Gilles Poitras 2001. Anime Essentials: Everything a Fan Needs to Know. (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge. ISBN 1880656531).
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Schodt, 1986, 68-87.
- ↑ Schodt, 1986, Chap. 3; Gravett, 2004, chapter. 5, 52-73.
- ↑ Thompson, 2007, xxiii-xxiv. See also Un poil de culture - Une introduction à l'animation japonaise (July 7, 2011) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Robin E. Brenner, 2007. Understanding Manga and Anime. (Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited/Greenwood), 31-34.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 95.
- ↑ Timothy Perper and Martha Cornog 2002. "Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U.S." Sexuality & Culture 6 (1): 3-126 (special issue).
- ↑ For multiple meanings of bishōjo, see Perper & Cornog, 2002, 60-63.
- ↑ Oh My Goddess! Anime News Network. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Ken Akamatsu, Negima, Del Rey/Random House, Vols. 1-15, 2004-2007; Hanaukyo Maid Team, by Morishige. Studio Ironcat, Vols. 1-3, 2003-2004. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ For the sentō bishōjo, translated as "battling beauty," see Mari Kotani, 2006. "Metamorphosis of the Japanese girl: The girl, the hyper-girl, and the battling beauty." Mechademia: An Academic Forum for Anime, Manga and the Fan Arts 1:162-170.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 Schodt, 1986, 68-73.
- ↑ Paul Gravett, Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Gravett, 2004, 38-42.
- ↑ Shimizu Isao, John Lent, (ed) "Red Comic Books: The Origins of Modern Japanese Manga" Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.ISBN 978-0824824716
- ↑ Isao, 2001, 147-149.
- ↑ Irma Nunez, Alternative Comics Heroes: Tracing the Genealogy of Gekiga The Japan Times (September 24, 2006) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion ComiPress (March 10, 2007) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Helen McCarthy. "Manga: A Brief History." 500 Manga Heroes & Villains. (Hauppauge, NY: Chrysalis Book Group, 2006. ISBN 978-0764132018), 14
- ↑ Martin Webb, Manga by any other name is Japan Times (May 28, 2006) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Lexicon: Manhwa: 만화 Anime News Network. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Wendy Siuyi Wong. 2002. Hong Kong Comics: A History of Manhua. (Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1568982694)
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 Daniel H. Pink, 2007. "Japan, Ink: Inside the Manga Industrial Complex." Wired Magazine 15 (11) (October 22). "Japanese comics have gripped the global imagination". Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Wendy Wong, (No Date.) "The Presence of Manga in Europe and North America." Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ 46.0 46.1 Jennifer Fishbein, Europe's Manga Mania. BusinessWeek (December 26, 2007) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ "Les editeurs des mangas." Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ "Manga-mania-in-france" Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ For video-centered fan culture, see Susan J. Napier. 2000 Anime: From Akira to "Princess Mononoke." (NY: Palgrave. ISBN 0312238630), Appendix, 239-256; and Jonathan Clements & Helen McCarthy. 2006. The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917, Revised and Expanded Ed. (Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, ISBN 1933330104), 475-476.
- ↑ 50.0 50.1 Sean Leonard, 2003, "Progress Against the Law: Fan Distribution, Copyright, and the Explosive Growth of Japanese Animation." Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 309.
- ↑ Leonard Rifas, 2004. "Globalizing Comic Books from Below: How Manga Came to America." International Journal of Comic Art 6(2):138-171. Rifas adds that the original EduComics titles were Gen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT sic.
- ↑ Patten, 2004, 37, 259-260.
- ↑ Jason Thompson. 2007. Manga: The Complete Guide. (NY: Ballantine Books), xv.
- ↑ Iczer. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Ippongi Bang. F-III Bandit. (San Antonio, TX: Antarctic Press, 1995).
- ↑ Patten, 2004, 52-73.
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 Andrew Farago, Interview: Jason Thompson The Comics Journal (September 30, 2007) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 318-321.
- ↑ Michael Gilman, "Interview: Toren Smith." (Dark Horse Comics) Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Patten, 2004, 50, 110, 124, 128, 135.
- ↑ Adam Arnold, 2000. "Full Circle: The Unofficial History of MixxZine", Adam "OMEGA" Arnold. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 95.
- ↑ Tangerine Dreams: Guide to Shoujo Manga and Anime (April 14, 2005) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Schodt, 1996, 308-319.
- ↑ The 1300-1400 number is an actual count from two different sources on the web. One is the web manga vendor Anime Castle, which, by actual count, lists 1315 different manga graphic novel titles (a title may have multiple volumes, like the 28 volumes of Lone Wolf and Cub). This list contains some Korean manga and some OEL manga. The second source is Anime News Network, which lists manga publishers plus titles they have published. The total for U.S. manga publishers comes to 1290 by actual count, including some Korean and OEL manga. Anime Castle lists another 91 adult graphic novel manga titles.
- ↑ Sarah Glazer, Manga for Girls The New York Times (September 18, 2005) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Coco Masters, 2006. "America is Drawn to Manga." TIME Magazine, Thursday, August 10.
- ↑ Bianca Bosker, 08-31-2007, Manga Mania. Wall Street Journal Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ No longer an obscure cult art form, Japanese comics are becoming as American as apuru pai. Jeff Yang, SFGate (June 14, 2006).Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ World Manga Anime News Network. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Bhob Stewart, "Screaming Metal," The Comics Journal 94 (October 1984).
- ↑ Ronin by Miller: Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Elizabeth Tai, September 23, 2007. "Manga outside Japan." thestar.com Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ I.C. Entertainment (formerly Ironcat) to launch anthology of Manga by American artists. 2002-11-11 Anime News Network. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Anime News Network. May 10, 2006. animenewsnetwork.com "Correction: World Manga.". Seven Seas claimed to have coined the term in 2004; Jake Forbes, "What is World Manga?" Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Anime News Network. May 5, 2006. animenewsnetwork "Tokyopop To Move Away from OEL and World Manga Labels.". Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ ICv2. September 7, 2007. Interview with Tokyopop's Mike Kiley, (part1), (part2), (part3). Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Manga, American-style. accessdate Tokyopop. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ↑ Calvin Reid,Tokyopop Ink Manga Deal. 2006-03-28… HarperCollins. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
- ↑ Frédéric Boilet, and Kan Takahama. Mariko Parade. (Castalla-Alicante, Spain: Ponent Mon, 2004. ISBN 849334091X).
- ↑ Rob Vollmar, 2007. "Frederic Boilet and the Nouvelle Manga revolution." World Literature Today Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- ↑ International award: Japan's Foreign Minister Creates Foreign Manga Award Anime News Network (May 22, 2007) Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Boilet, Frédéric, and Kan Takahama. Mariko Parade. Castalla-Alicante, Spain: Ponent Mon, 2004. ISBN 849334091X.
- Bouquillard, Jocelyn, and Christophe Marquet. Hokusai: First Manga Master. New York: Abrams, 2007. ISBN 0810993414.
- Drazen, Patrick. Anime Explosion!: the What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge, 2003. ISBN 9781880656723.
- Gravett, Paul. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. NY: Harper Design. 2004. ISBN 1856693910.
- Katzenstein, Peter. J., & Takashi Shiraishi. Network Power: Japan in Asia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0801483738.
- Kern, Adam. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyōshi of Edo Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2006. ISBN 978-0674022669.
- Kinko Ito. "A history of manga in the context of Japanese culture and society." The Journal of Popular Culture 38 (3) (February 2005). Blackwell Publishing.
- Kinsella, Sharon. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0824823184.
- Kittelson, Mary Lynn. The Soul of Popular Culture: Looking at Contemporary Heroes, Myths, and Monsters. Chicago: Open Court. 1998. ISBN 978-0812693638.
- Kodansha. Japan: Profile of a Nation, Revised Ed. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1999. ISBN 4770023847.
- Lee, William, "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan." In: Timothy J. Craig, (ed.) Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. ISBN 978-0765605610.
- Lent, John A., ed. Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press, 2001. ISBN 0824824717.
- McCarthy, Helen. "Manga: A Brief History." 500 Manga Heroes & Villains. Hauppauge, NY: Chrysalis Book Group, 2006. ISBN 978-0764132018.
- Napier, Susan J. Anime: From Akira to "Princess Mononoke." NY: Palgrave, 2000. ISBN 0312238630.
- Patten, Fred. Watching Anime, Reading Manga: 25 Years of Essays and Reviews. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1880656921
- Poitras, Jilles. 2001. Anime Essentials: Everything a Fan Needs to Know. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge. ISBN 1880656531.
- Schodt, Frederik L. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo: Kodansha. 1986. ISBN 978-0870117527.
- Schodt, Frederik L. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press, 1996. ISBN 978-1880656235.
- Thompson, Jason. Manga: The Complete Guide. NY: Ballantine Books, 2007.
- Toku, Masami. Shojo Manga: Girl Power! Chico, CA: Flume Press/California State University Press, 2005, ISBN 1886226105.